Passive immunization procedures with antisera

Disease

Passive Immunization (Antisera)

Tetanus

The usual prophylactic dose is 1500 units of horse ATS given s.c. or im. Soon after injury

Gas Gangrene

A polyvalent antitoxin is used. A patient who has sustained a wound possibly contaminated with spores of gas gangrene should receive a dose of 10,000IU of Cl.perfringens. Antitoxin, 5000 units of Cl.septicum antitoxin & 10,000 units of Cl.oedematiens antitoxin, im or in urgent cases intravenously  

Rabies

Antirabies serum in a dose of of 40 IU per kg of body weight should be given im within 72 hours & preferably within 24 hrs of exposure. A part of the antiserum is applied locally to the wound.

Botulism

When Botulism is suspected, 10,000 units of polyvalent antitoxin is recommended every 3 to 4 hours

Diphtheria

A dose of 500-1,000 unit of diphtheria antitoxin is given im to susceptible contacts immediately after exposure. Protection does not last more than 2-3 weeks.

 

Human filarial infections




Organism
Vector 
Disease produced
1
Wuchereria bancrofti
Culex mosquitoes
Lymphatic filariasis
2
Brugia malayi
Mansonia mosquitoes
Lymphatic filariasis
3
Brugia timori
Anopheles mosquitoes,
Mansonia mosquitoes
Lymphatic filariasis
4
Onchocerca volvulus
Simulum flies
Subcutaneous nodules, River blindness
5
Loa loa
Chrysopes flies
Recurrent, Transient subcutaneous swellings
6
T.perstans
Culicoides
Probably rarely any clinical illness
7
T.streptocerca
Culicoides
Probably rarely any clinical illness
8
Mansonella ozzardi
Culicoides
Probably rarely any clinical illness

SAFE triangle for ICD placement

1. Anterior border of the latissimus dorsi
2. Lateral border of pectoralis major muscle
3. A line superior to the horizontal level of the nipple and an apex below the axilla

Leukocoria is seen in

·         Retinoblastoma

·         Congenital cataract

·         Inflammatory deposits in the eye

·         Coloboma of choroid

·         Retrolental fibroplasia (Retinopathy of prematurity)

·         Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

·         Toxocara endopthalmitis

·         Exudative retinopathy of coats

·         Tuberculoma of choroid

·         Retinal detachment